Article of the Month (November Month)-WOMEN AND CANCER— TIPS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION

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WOMEN AND CANCER— TIPS FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION

 

Health of the family depends on the health of the women, however health comes last in the priority list of women in India. Women are at very high risk of developing cancer and almost 1 out of every 4 female can have cancer in their life time. The most common cancers which can affect women are cancer of breast, cervix, ovary and endometrium.

BREAST CANCER

  1.  It is the most common cancer in women and second leading cause of death. The risk factors are obesity, early menarche and late menopause, hormonal therapy and family history, although in 70% of cases there is no risk factor associated.  Pregnancy and breast feeding are protective against breast cancer.
  2.  The early signs and symptoms of cancer breast are PAINLESS lump in the breast or axilla, any abnormal discharge from nipple. In later stages there can be redness of the skin.
  3.  Regular Screening in breast cancer is recommended by American Cancer Society to detect cancer early. Screening can be done by three methods a) monthly self breast examination- done by the females themselves on the fifth day of menstrual cycle and should start at the age of 20 . b) clinical breast examination—done by the expert annually after the age of 40. c) mammography- is x-ray of the breast which detects changes in the architecture of the breast even before the lump has developed. It should start after the age of 45.

CANCER CERVIX

  1. It is the second most common cancer in women in India.
    2. The risk factors are early pregnancy, several pregnancies, poor hygiene and infection with Human Papilloma Virus.
    3. The earliest symptom is postcoital bleeding, followed by heavy intermenstrual bleeding and foul smelling discharge.
    4. Screening can be done by a very simple and non-invasive test called PAP test which can detect cancer even in precancerous form. This test should be done annually after the age of 20.

CANCER OVARY

  1. The early symptoms are vague abdominal pain , bloating, gastro-intestinal and urinary tract problems. Most patients present in advanced stages.
    2. Can be detected early by clinical suspicion, physical examination and CA-125. CA-125 is a special tumor marker for cancer ovary which can be easily done on clinical suspicion by a blood test.

CANCER ENDOMETRIUM

  1.  The incidence of cancer endometrium or uterus is increasing with the increasing incidence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hypothyroidism. The other risk factors are exposure to endogenous or exogenous estrogens (oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy).
    2.    The most common and early symptom is postmenopausal bleeding. Any bleeding after menopause is a warning signal and should be taken seriously. The other symptoms are vaginal discharge, pelvic pain or any change in bladder and bowel habits.
    3.    Endometrial cancer can be easily diagnosed by ultrasound and fractional curettage of the uterus.

TIPS FOR PREVENTION OF CANCER

  1.  Keeping a healthy body by taking healthy diet and regular exercises.
    2.    No to smoking , tobacco or alcohol.
    3.    Regular health checks and examination by experts.
    4.    Follow cancer screening guidelines.
    5.    Cancer vaccines available for some cancers
    6.    Do not ignore any symptom.
    7.    Avoid direct sun exposure.

DR MANISHI BANSAL
M.D RADIATION ONCOLOGY (AIIMS, NEW DELHI)
SENIOR CONSULTANT ONCOLOGY
MAYO Hospital
SECTOR 69- MOHALI
PHONE-09815255513
Email—manishi1@yahoo.com
www.gocancer.org
facebook page – cancer cure India

 

Health of the family depends on the health of the women, however health comes last in the priority list of women in India. Women are at very high risk of developing cancer and almost 1 out of every 4 female can have cancer in their life time. The most common cancers which can affect women are cancer of breast, cervix, ovary and endometrium.

BREAST CANCER

  1.  It is the most common cancer in women and second leading cause of death. The risk factors are obesity, early menarche and late menopause, hormonal therapy and family history, although in 70% of cases there is no risk factor associated.  Pregnancy and breast feeding are protective against breast cancer.
  2.  The early signs and symptoms of cancer breast are PAINLESS lump in the breast or axilla, any abnormal discharge from nipple. In later stages there can be redness of the skin.
  3.  Regular Screening in breast cancer is recommended by American Cancer Society to detect cancer early. Screening can be done by three methods a) monthly self breast examination- done by the females themselves on the fifth day of menstrual cycle and should start at the age of 20 . b) clinical breast examination—done by the expert annually after the age of 40. c) mammography- is x-ray of the breast which detects changes in the architecture of the breast even before the lump has developed. It should start after the age of 45.

CANCER CERVIX

  1. It is the second most common cancer in women in India.
    2. The risk factors are early pregnancy, several pregnancies, poor hygiene and infection with Human Papilloma Virus.
    3. The earliest symptom is postcoital bleeding, followed by heavy intermenstrual bleeding and foul smelling discharge.
    4. Screening can be done by a very simple and non-invasive test called PAP test which can detect cancer even in precancerous form. This test should be done annually after the age of 20.

CANCER OVARY

  1. The early symptoms are vague abdominal pain , bloating, gastro-intestinal and urinary tract problems. Most patients present in advanced stages.
    2. Can be detected early by clinical suspicion, physical examination and CA-125. CA-125 is a special tumor marker for cancer ovary which can be easily done on clinical suspicion by a blood test.

CANCER ENDOMETRIUM

  1.  The incidence of cancer endometrium or uterus is increasing with the increasing incidence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hypothyroidism. The other risk factors are exposure to endogenous or exogenous estrogens (oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy).
    2.    The most common and early symptom is postmenopausal bleeding. Any bleeding after menopause is a warning signal and should be taken seriously. The other symptoms are vaginal discharge, pelvic pain or any change in bladder and bowel habits.
    3.    Endometrial cancer can be easily diagnosed by ultrasound and fractional curettage of the uterus.

TIPS FOR PREVENTION OF CANCER

  1.  Keeping a healthy body by taking healthy diet and regular exercises.
    2.    No to smoking , tobacco or alcohol.
    3.    Regular health checks and examination by experts.
    4.    Follow cancer screening guidelines.
    5.    Cancer vaccines available for some cancers
    6.    Do not ignore any symptom.
    7.    Avoid direct sun exposure.

DR MANISHI BANSAL
M.D RADIATION ONCOLOGY (AIIMS, NEW DELHI)
SENIOR CONSULTANT ONCOLOGY
MAYO Hospital
SECTOR 69- MOHALI
PHONE-09815255513
Email—manishi1@yahoo.com
www.gocancer.org
facebook page – cancer cure India

 

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Editor in Chief of City Darpan, national hindi news magazine.

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